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[49卷2期] 無花果之授粉行為及結果習性

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分享作者: TSHS 發表於 2013-8-9 21:24:21 |顯示全部樓層

文章名稱(中文): 無花果之授粉行為及結果習性
英文名稱: Pollination and Syconium Set in Fig (Ficus carica L.)
作者(中文): 洪寶瑩、陳右人
作者(英文): 洪寶瑩(Pou-Ieng Hong); 陳右人(Iou-Zen Chen)
卷期: 49卷2期
頁次: 151-163
中文摘要: 無花果(Ficus carica L.)的花序屬於隱頭花序(syconium),靠無花果蜂(Blastophaga psenes)授粉。花可分為雄花
英文摘要: Fig (Ficus carica L.) forms syconia and fig wasps (Blastophaga psenes) are needed for pollination. Fig is protogyny and there are three types of fig flowers: staminate flower, short-styled female flower and long-styled female flower. Fig wasps can lay eggs in the ovaries of short-styled female flower to form galls. Fig is divided into four groups according to its sex and pollination demand: Caprifig (Ficus carica var. sylvestris Shinn.), Common fig (Ficus carica var. hortensis Shinn.), San Pedro type (Ficus carica var. intermedia Shinn.) and Smyrna type (Ficus carica var. smyrnica Shinn.). Caprifig possesses staminate and short-styled female flowers. It is so-called male fig as it is functionally male. Caprifig produces three crops a year: mamme crop, profichi crop and mammoni crop. The other three types are female fig and only possess long-styled female flowers. Female fig may produce one or three crops annually, decided by climate. Common fig is completely parthenocarpy, however, pollination is necessary for San Pedo type to produce the main crop. Smyrna type is non-parthenocarpy. Vegetative parthenocarpy is characteristic of Common fig and San Pedo type, however, parthenocarpy in Caprifig is stimilative. Pollination carried out between male and female figs is known as caprification. Only the vegetative parthenocarpic varieties produce the breba crop as caprification occurs between the profichi crop and the main crop. Fig secretes volatile compounds when it is receptive in order to attract fig wasps. Although the identity of the volatile compounds is similar for both sexes, the total contents and the proportions of each component are apparently different and that is the major factor for fig wasps to distinguish the sexes of figs. However, fig wasps cannot choose between the two kinds of figs because of the different times of antheses. Therefore the symbiosis system can be maintained.
關鍵字詞: 無花果、無花果蜂、隱頭花序、授粉行為、單為結果; fig, fig wasp, syconium, caprification, parthenocarpy

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無花果之授粉行為及結果習性

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